CULTIVAR DEVELOPMENT


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Field trials of peanut breeding lines.                                                     Crosses made on peanut plants in the greenhouse.


Goal


Our goal is to release new cultivars for Texas growers. Although we use biotechnology tools (DNA markers) in varietal development, all our peanut cultivars are non-GMO. Traits that we are working on incorporating include:

 

          High yield - to maximize grower profitability. All our materials are evaluated over multiple years and locations before release, to select materials with the highest yield.

 

          Improved edible seed quality - by incorporation of early maturity and high oleic oil. Early maturity reduces the number of immature peanuts at harvest, and it is the immature peanuts that have the potential for developing off-flavors. The high oleic trait improves shelf life of peanut because the oil is less susceptible to oxidation. High oleic oil is also beneficial for consumers, because the oil is high in mono-unsaturated fatty acids (similar to olive oil), which reduces cholesterol levels and the incidence of coronary disease.

 

          Tolerance to water deficit and heat stress. West Texas is in its fourth year of drought, and the levels of the Ogallala Aquifer, which is the source of irrigation water, is declining. We have identified sources of tolerance to water deficit and heat stress, and are using these in the breeding program. Our goal is to develop cultivars that can be grown profitably under reduced irrigation.

 

          Resistance to disease and pests. Among these are: nematodes - these cause yield losses in parts of Texas and other areas of the U.S. Sclerotinia blight is a soil-borne fungal pathogen that can cause major yield losses, especially in Central Texas and parts of West Texas. Early and late leaf spots can cause significant defoliation and pod loss, especially in South Texas. Tomato spotted wilt virus is transmitted by thrips, and has caused major losses in South Texas in some years.

 

          Develop crops for biodiesel. We have developed high-oil breeding lines of peanut, that contain 55% or more oil. High-oil lines could reduce the cost of peanut oil. We have also worked on identification of algae accessions that could be grown in the West Texas region.                                    

 

References.

Burow, M. D., M. R. Baring, J. L. Ayers, A. M. Schubert, Y. López, and C. E. Simpson. (2014). Registration of ‘Tamrun OL12’ Peanut. J. Plant Regist.

 

Burow, M. D., M. R. Baring, J. L. Ayers, A. M. Schubert, Y. López, and C. E. Simpson. (2014). Registration of ‘Schubert’ Peanut. J. Plant Regist. doi:10.3198/jpr2013.07.0042crc.

 

Simpson, C. E., J. L. Starr, M. R. Baring, M. D. Burow, J. M. Cason, and J. N. Wilson. (2013) Registration of ‘Webb’ Peanut. J. Plant Regist. 7: 265- 268.

 

Baring, M. R., C. E. Simpson, M. D. Burow, J. M. Cason, and J. L. Ayers. (2013) Registration of ‘Tamrun OL11’ Peanut. J. Plant Regist. 7: 154-158.

 

Melouk, H. A., K. Chamberlin, C. B. Godsey, J. Damicone, M. D. Burow, M. R. Baring, C. E. Simpson, K. E. Dashiell, and M. Payton. (2012) Registration of ‘Red River Runner’ Peanut. J. Plant Regist. 7:22-25.

 

López, Y., M. D. Burow, J. L. Ayers, M. R. Baring, and C. E. Simpson. (2007) TxAG-8 Peanut Germplasm. J. Plant Registr. 1: 150.

 

Baring, M. R., Y. Lopez, C.E. Simpson, M.C. Black, J. C. Cason, J. Ayers, and M. D. Burow. (2007) Registration of ‘Tamnut OL06' Peanut. Crop Sci. 46: 2720-2721.

 

Baring, M. R., C.E. Simpson, M. D. Burow, M.C. Black, J. C. Cason, J. Ayers, and Y. Lopez. (2007) Registration of ‘Tamrun OL07’ Runner Peanut. Crop Sci. 46: 2721-2722.

 

Simpson, C. E., J. L. Starr, G. T. Church, M. D. Burow, and A. H. Paterson. (2003) Registration of 'NemaTAM' Peanut. Crop Sci. 43: 1561.